甘松 | “香中之王” | 中药甘松的化学成分与药理活性

植物提取物 2024-04-17 企业动态 291

甘松,中药名,为败酱科植物甘松Nardostachys jatamansi DC.的干燥根及根茎。甘松主要分布在中国的四川、云南等地区,因其独特的香气和多样的药理作用而在中医中占有重要地位,被誉为“香中之王”。甘松在中医中主要用于理气止痛、开郁醒脾、温肾助阳等,适用于胸腹胀痛、食欲不振、肾虚阳痿等症状的治疗。

Gansong, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is the dried root and rhizome of the plant Nardostachys jatamansi DC., which belongs to the family Valerianaceae. It is predominantly found in regions such as Sichuan and Yunnan in China. Recognized for its distinctive fragrance and diverse pharmacological effects, Gansong holds a significant place in traditional Chinese medicine and is acclaimed as the "King of Fragrance". In TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine), Gansong is primarily utilized to regulate the flow of Qi, alleviate pain, relieve melancholic stagnation and invigorate the spleen, and warm the kidneys to assist Yang. It is indicated for the treatment of symptoms such as chest and abdominal bloating, poor appetite, and kidney deficiency-related impotence.





Gansong's medicinal properties were first recorded in the "Compendium of Materia Medica" and are classified as medium-grade. It is warm in nature, with a sweet and spicy taste, and is associated with the spleen, stomach, and kidney meridians. The 2020 edition of the "Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China" provides detailed regulations on the characteristics, identification, inspection, and content determination of Gansong, ensuring that the quality of the medicinal product complies with national drug standards.




The collection and processing of Gansong typically take place during the spring and autumn seasons. After harvesting, it is necessary to remove any soil and impurities, followed by air-drying or low-temperature drying. The processed Gansong root and rhizome should be irregularly shaped blocks or slices, with a surface that is brown and has longitudinal wrinkles as well as dotted root marks. The cross-section is yellowish-white to gray-brown, oily, aromatic, and has a pungent and slightly bitter taste.



根据2020年版《中国药典》,甘松的质量控制指标成分包括挥发油中的甘松醇和甘松酮。甘松的挥发油总量不得少于 2.0%(ml/g),甘松新酮的含量不得少于1.0%。含量应符合药典规定的标准,以确保其疗效和安全性。

According to the 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the quality control index components of Gansong include gansenoside and nardostachysin in the volatile oil. The total amount of volatile oil in Gansong should not be less than 2.0% (ml/g), and the content of nardostachysin should not be less than 1.0%. The content should meet the standards specified by the pharmacopoeia to ensure its therapeutic efficacy and safety.




The chemical composition of Gansong is complex, mainly including volatile oil, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenes, etc. Volatile oil is its main active component, including gansenosides, nardostachysin, β-pinene, α-pinene, limonene, etc. In addition, Gansong also contains coumarin compounds such as xanthotoxin and sophoradin, as well as flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds.




甘松(Nardostachys jatamansi DC.)是一种在传统中医中具有重要地位的药材,其化学成分和药理活性的研究已经取得了显著进展。甘松主要含有的化学成分包括萜类、黄酮类、香豆素类、木脂素类以及挥发油类等。这些成分赋予了甘松多样的药理活性,包括但不限于镇静、降压、抗心律失常、抑菌等。

In traditional Chinese medicine, Gansong (Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) holds a significant position, and research on its chemical components and pharmacological activities has made remarkable progress. The main chemical constituents of Gansong include terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, and volatile oils, etc. These components endow Gansong with a variety of pharmacological activities, including but not limited to sedation, blood pressure reduction, anti-arrhythmia, and antibacterial effects.


Among the terpenoid compounds, sesquiterpenes and cycloalkene ethers are important active ingredients in Gansong. Research has shown that these components can induce endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation by activating specific signaling pathways, such as the PDK1-Akt-eNOS pathway, and stimulating the opening of KATP channels, demonstrating the potential to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases like hypertension.


The flavonoid compounds in Gansong also exhibit significant pharmacological effects. These compounds have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities, and they can protect the cardiovascular system and mitigate damage caused by oxidative stress.


Coumarins and lignans, present in Gansong, have anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and hepatoprotective effects, showing significant therapeutic effects on diseases of the digestive system.


In addition, the volatile oil components in Gansong have also attracted the attention of researchers. Specific components in the volatile oil, such as patchouli alcohol and β-elemene, have been proven to have vascular protective effects, potentially acting through various mechanisms, including virtual screening and experimental validation, revealing the potential vascular protection mechanism of Gansong essential oil.


It is worth noting that some active components in Gansong, such as nardosinone, although possessing strong pharmacological activities, are less stable. Researchers are exploring the stability of these components under different conditions and how to enhance their stability through improved extraction and processing methods to better exert their pharmacological effects.


In summary, the study of the chemical components and pharmacological activities of Gansong provides an in-depth understanding of its medicinal value and offers a scientific basis for future drug development and clinical applications. With ongoing research, more potential medicinal values of Gansong are expected to be further discovered and utilized.








凭借现有的 3000 多种天然单体,构建起规模庞大的天然产物单体化合物库。具有极高的潜在药用价值,可应用于药物研发、药理学研究与药物活性筛选等诸多领域。