甘松 | “香中之王” | 中药甘松的化学成分与药理活性

植物提取物 2024-04-17 企业动态 291

甘松,中药名,为败酱科植物甘松Nardostachys jatamansi DC.的干燥根及根茎。甘松主要分布在中国的四川、云南等地区,因其独特的香气和多样的药理作用而在中医中占有重要地位,被誉为“香中之王”。甘松在中医中主要用于理气止痛、开郁醒脾、温肾助阳等,适用于胸腹胀痛、食欲不振、肾虚阳痿等症状的治疗。

Gansong, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is the dried root and rhizome of the plant Nardostachys jatamansi DC., which belongs to the family Valerianaceae. It is predominantly found in regions such as Sichuan and Yunnan in China. Recognized for its distinctive fragrance and diverse pharmacological effects, Gansong holds a significant place in traditional Chinese medicine and is acclaimed as the "King of Fragrance". In TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine), Gansong is primarily utilized to regulate the flow of Qi, alleviate pain, relieve melancholic stagnation and invigorate the spleen, and warm the kidneys to assist Yang. It is indicated for the treatment of symptoms such as chest and abdominal bloating, poor appetite, and kidney deficiency-related impotence.

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01


性味归经与药典收录

甘松最早在《本草纲目》中有记载,并被列为中品。其性温,味甘辛,归脾、胃、肾经。2020年版《中华人民共和国药典》对甘松的性状、鉴别、检查、含量测定等方面进行了详细规定,确保药品质量符合国家药品标准。

Gansong's medicinal properties were first recorded in the "Compendium of Materia Medica" and are classified as medium-grade. It is warm in nature, with a sweet and spicy taste, and is associated with the spleen, stomach, and kidney meridians. The 2020 edition of the "Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China" provides detailed regulations on the characteristics, identification, inspection, and content determination of Gansong, ensuring that the quality of the medicinal product complies with national drug standards.

02


甘松的采集与炮制

甘松的采挖通常在春秋两季进行,挖取后需除去泥土和杂质,然后晒干或低温干燥。炮制后的甘松根茎应为不规则的块状或片状,外表皮棕褐色,有纵皱纹及点状须根痕。断面黄白色至灰棕色,有油性,气芳香,味辛、微苦。

The collection and processing of Gansong typically take place during the spring and autumn seasons. After harvesting, it is necessary to remove any soil and impurities, followed by air-drying or low-temperature drying. The processed Gansong root and rhizome should be irregularly shaped blocks or slices, with a surface that is brown and has longitudinal wrinkles as well as dotted root marks. The cross-section is yellowish-white to gray-brown, oily, aromatic, and has a pungent and slightly bitter taste.

03


甘松及其炮制品的质量标准

根据2020年版《中国药典》,甘松的质量控制指标成分包括挥发油中的甘松醇和甘松酮。甘松的挥发油总量不得少于 2.0%(ml/g),甘松新酮的含量不得少于1.0%。含量应符合药典规定的标准,以确保其疗效和安全性。

According to the 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the quality control index components of Gansong include gansenoside and nardostachysin in the volatile oil. The total amount of volatile oil in Gansong should not be less than 2.0% (ml/g), and the content of nardostachysin should not be less than 1.0%. The content should meet the standards specified by the pharmacopoeia to ensure its therapeutic efficacy and safety.

04


甘松的化学成分

甘松的化学成分复杂,主要包括挥发油、香豆素、黄酮、酚酸、萜类等。挥发油是其主要有效成分,包括甘松醇、甘松酮、β-蒎烯、α-蒎烯、柠檬烯等。此外,甘松还含有香豆素类化合物如秦皮素、金合欢素,以及黄酮类化合物和酚酸类化合物。

The chemical composition of Gansong is complex, mainly including volatile oil, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenes, etc. Volatile oil is its main active component, including gansenosides, nardostachysin, β-pinene, α-pinene, limonene, etc. In addition, Gansong also contains coumarin compounds such as xanthotoxin and sophoradin, as well as flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds.

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05


甘松的药理活性

甘松(Nardostachys jatamansi DC.)是一种在传统中医中具有重要地位的药材,其化学成分和药理活性的研究已经取得了显著进展。甘松主要含有的化学成分包括萜类、黄酮类、香豆素类、木脂素类以及挥发油类等。这些成分赋予了甘松多样的药理活性,包括但不限于镇静、降压、抗心律失常、抑菌等。

In traditional Chinese medicine, Gansong (Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) holds a significant position, and research on its chemical components and pharmacological activities has made remarkable progress. The main chemical constituents of Gansong include terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, and volatile oils, etc. These components endow Gansong with a variety of pharmacological activities, including but not limited to sedation, blood pressure reduction, anti-arrhythmia, and antibacterial effects.

在萜类成分中,倍半萜和环烯醚萜是甘松中的重要活性成分。研究表明,这些成分通过激活特定的信号通路,如PDK1-Akt-eNOS通路,以及刺激KATP通道的开放,能够引发内皮依赖性和非依赖性的血管舒张,显示出防治高血压等心血管疾病的潜力。

Among the terpenoid compounds, sesquiterpenes and cycloalkene ethers are important active ingredients in Gansong. Research has shown that these components can induce endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation by activating specific signaling pathways, such as the PDK1-Akt-eNOS pathway, and stimulating the opening of KATP channels, demonstrating the potential to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases like hypertension.

甘松中的黄酮类化合物也显示出了显著的药理作用。这些化合物具有抗氧化、抗炎、抗肿瘤等活性,能够保护心血管系统,减轻氧化应激引起的损伤。

The flavonoid compounds in Gansong also exhibit significant pharmacological effects. These compounds have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities, and they can protect the cardiovascular system and mitigate damage caused by oxidative stress.

香豆素类和木脂素类成分在甘松中也占有一定比例,这些成分具有抗炎、抗溃疡、保护肝脏等作用,对于消化系统的疾病具有显著的治疗效果。

Coumarins and lignans, present in Gansong, have anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and hepatoprotective effects, showing significant therapeutic effects on diseases of the digestive system.

此外,甘松中的挥发油组分也受到了研究者的关注。挥发油中的特定成分,如广藿香醇和β-马榄烯,已被证实具有血管保护作用,这些成分可能通过多种机制发挥作用,包括虚拟筛选和实验验证,揭示了甘松精油潜在的血管保护机制。

In addition, the volatile oil components in Gansong have also attracted the attention of researchers. Specific components in the volatile oil, such as patchouli alcohol and β-elemene, have been proven to have vascular protective effects, potentially acting through various mechanisms, including virtual screening and experimental validation, revealing the potential vascular protection mechanism of Gansong essential oil.

值得注意的是,甘松中的一些活性成分,如甘松新酮,虽然具有强大的药理活性,但稳定性较差。研究者正在探索这些成分在不同条件下的稳定性,以及如何通过改进提取和炮制方法来增强其稳定性,从而更好地发挥其药理作用。

It is worth noting that some active components in Gansong, such as nardosinone, although possessing strong pharmacological activities, are less stable. Researchers are exploring the stability of these components under different conditions and how to enhance their stability through improved extraction and processing methods to better exert their pharmacological effects.

综上所述,甘松的化学成分和药理活性研究为我们提供了对其药用价值的深入理解,并为未来的药物开发和临床应用提供了科学依据。随着研究的不断深入,甘松的更多潜在药用价值有望被进一步发掘和利用。

In summary, the study of the chemical components and pharmacological activities of Gansong provides an in-depth understanding of its medicinal value and offers a scientific basis for future drug development and clinical applications. With ongoing research, more potential medicinal values of Gansong are expected to be further discovered and utilized.
END

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